Biology Final Study Guide

Chapter 15
Explain how natural selection is related to species’ fitness.
Explain adaptation and the different types.
Explain Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
Chapter 16
Explain what a gene pool is.
Explain why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.
Identify the two main sources of genetic variation.
Explain genetic drift. Identify the five conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium.
Describe the different types of isolating mechanisms that can lead to the development of new species. 
Chapter 17
Describe the fossil record.
Describe the six important topics in macroevolution: extinction, adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, coevolution, punctuated equilibrium and changes in developmental genes.
Chapter 18
Explain evolutionary classification.
Explain the use of cladograms.
Describe how similar genes and DNA evidence can be used to help determine classification and evolutionary relationships.
Identify the six kingdoms of life as they are now identified.
Describe the three-domain system of classification.
Chapter 19
Describe prokaryotes and explain how the two groups of prokaryotes differ.
Explain why bacteria are vital to maintaining the living world.
Describe the structure of a virus.
Explain the two processes by which viruses cause infections.
Explain how bacteria cause disease.
Describe the role of vaccines and antibiotics.
Explain how viruses cause disease and how their treatment is different than that for bacterial diseases. 
Chapter 35
Identify the level of organization in the human body.
Explain homeostasis.
Explain the functions of the nervous system.
Explain neurons and how they are classified.
Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted.
Identify the functions of the central nervous system.
Explain the functions of the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.
Identify the five types of sensory receptors and where they are found in the body. Chapter 36
Identify the functions of the skeletal system.
Explain how muscles contract.
Identify the functions of the integumentary system.
Describe the two layers of the skin.
Chapter 37
Identify the functions of the circulatory system.
Identify the structures of the circulatory system and explain their functions. Identify the function of the respiratory system.
Describe gas exchange and breathing.
Chapter 38
Identify the function of the digestive system.
Identify the organs of the digestive system and their functions.
Describe the function of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis.
Explain the two processes of blood purification.
Chapter 39
Identify the function of the endocrine system.
Describe hormones and glands.
Explain how the endocrine system maintains homeostasis.
Chapter 40
Identify the causes of disease.
Describe how antibiotics fight infection.
Identify the function of the immune system.
Describe the body’s nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens.
Describe the specific defenses that make up the immune response.
Explain the difference between active and passive immunity.
Describe what happens when the immune system overreacts.
Explain what an autoimmune disease is.

Mid-Term Study Guide

* You may use one page of handwritten notes on your midterm.
* Post notes each week to study with your classmates.

Biology Midterm - CHAPTERS 1-14
(you may use a one-sided sheet of handwritten notes)
Chapter 1
Explain what a hypothesis is and how scientists test them.
Explain how a scientific theory develops.
Describe characteristics of living things.
Explain the levels of organization at which life can be studied.

Chapter 2
Identify the three subatomic particles found in atoms.
Explain what chemical compounds are.
Describe two main types of chemical bonds.
Explain why water molecules are polar and describe their polarity.
Describe the functions of each group of organic compounds.

Chapter 3
Identify the levels of organization that ecologists study.
Identify the source of energy for life processes.
Define autotrophs and heterotrophs and types of heterotrophs.
Know how the flow of energy is traced through living systems.
Explain trophic levels.
Describe the different types of ecological pyramids.
Explain how matter is recycled in ecosystems through the water cycle, the carbon cycle, and the nitrogen cycle.

Chapter 4
Explain how biotic and abiotic factors influence an ecosystem.
Describe different types of community interactions.
Explain what microclimates are.

Chapter 5
List and explain the characteristics used to describe a population.
Identify factors that affect population size.
Identify density-dependent and density-independent factors that limit population growth.

Chapter 6
Identify human activities that can affect the biosphere.
Explained how environmental resources are classified.
Identify the characteristics of sustainable development BIOLOGY MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
Define biodiversity and explain its value.
Identify current threats to biodiversity.

Chapter 7
Explain what the cell theory is.
Distinguish between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Describe the functions of the cell nucleus, the major cell organelles, and the cytoskeleton.
Identify the main functions of the cell membrane and the cell wall.
Describe what happens during diffusion.
Explain the processes of osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.
Identify the organization levels in multicellular organisms.

Chapter 8
Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food.
Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities.
State the overall equation for photosynthesis.
Describe the role of light and chlorophyll in photosynthesis.
Describe the structure and function of a chloroplast.
Describe what happens in the light-dependent reactions.
Explain what the Calvin cycle is.

Chapter 9
Explain what cellular respiration is and state the overall equation.
Describe what happens during the process of glycolysis.
Describe what happens during the Krebs cycle.
Describe what happens in the electron transport chain.
Compare photosynthesis and cellular respiration.

Chapter 10
Explain the problems that growth causes for cells.
Identify the main events of the cell cycle.
Describe what happens during the four phases of mitosis.

Chapter 11
Summarize Mendel’s conclusion about inheritance.
Explain the principle of dominance.
Describe what happens during segregation.
Describe how geneticists use Punnett squares.
Explain the principle of independent assortment.
Contrast the chromosome number of body cells and gametes.
Summarize the events of meiosis.
Contrast meiosis and mitosis.

Chapter 12
Describe the overall function and structure of the DNA molecule.
Describe the events of DNA replication.
Explain how RNA differs from DNA.
Name the three main types of RNA.
Describe transcription.
Explain the genetic code.
Summarize translation.
Contrast gene mutations and chromosomal mutations.

Chapter 13
Explain the purpose of selective breeding.
Explain how scientists manipulate DNA.
Summarize what happens during transformation.
Describe the usefulness of biotechnology.

Chapter 14
Identify the types of human chromosomes in a karyotype.
Explain how sex is determined by chromosomes.
Explain how pedigrees are used to study human traits.
Explain why some sex-linked disorders are more common in males than females.