Biology Final Study Guide

Chapter 15
Explain how natural selection is related to species’ fitness.
Explain adaptation and the different types.
Explain Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
Chapter 16
Explain what a gene pool is.
Explain why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.
Identify the two main sources of genetic variation.
Explain genetic drift. Identify the five conditions required to maintain genetic equilibrium.
Describe the different types of isolating mechanisms that can lead to the development of new species. 
Chapter 17
Describe the fossil record.
Describe the six important topics in macroevolution: extinction, adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, coevolution, punctuated equilibrium and changes in developmental genes.
Chapter 18
Explain evolutionary classification.
Explain the use of cladograms.
Describe how similar genes and DNA evidence can be used to help determine classification and evolutionary relationships.
Identify the six kingdoms of life as they are now identified.
Describe the three-domain system of classification.
Chapter 19
Describe prokaryotes and explain how the two groups of prokaryotes differ.
Explain why bacteria are vital to maintaining the living world.
Describe the structure of a virus.
Explain the two processes by which viruses cause infections.
Explain how bacteria cause disease.
Describe the role of vaccines and antibiotics.
Explain how viruses cause disease and how their treatment is different than that for bacterial diseases. 
Chapter 35
Identify the level of organization in the human body.
Explain homeostasis.
Explain the functions of the nervous system.
Explain neurons and how they are classified.
Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted.
Identify the functions of the central nervous system.
Explain the functions of the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system.
Identify the five types of sensory receptors and where they are found in the body. Chapter 36
Identify the functions of the skeletal system.
Explain how muscles contract.
Identify the functions of the integumentary system.
Describe the two layers of the skin.
Chapter 37
Identify the functions of the circulatory system.
Identify the structures of the circulatory system and explain their functions. Identify the function of the respiratory system.
Describe gas exchange and breathing.
Chapter 38
Identify the function of the digestive system.
Identify the organs of the digestive system and their functions.
Describe the function of the kidneys in maintaining homeostasis.
Explain the two processes of blood purification.
Chapter 39
Identify the function of the endocrine system.
Describe hormones and glands.
Explain how the endocrine system maintains homeostasis.
Chapter 40
Identify the causes of disease.
Describe how antibiotics fight infection.
Identify the function of the immune system.
Describe the body’s nonspecific defenses against invading pathogens.
Describe the specific defenses that make up the immune response.
Explain the difference between active and passive immunity.
Describe what happens when the immune system overreacts.
Explain what an autoimmune disease is.